‘Sod’s brood, be me fear! Sanglorians, save! Arms apeal with larms, appalling. Killykillkilly: a toll, a toll. What chance cuddleys, what cashels aired and ventilated! What bidmetoloves sinduced by what tegotebabsolvers! What true feeling for their’s hayair with what strawng voice of false jiccup! O here here how hoth sprowled met the duskt the father of fornicationists but, (O my shining stars and body!) how hath fanespanned most high heaven the skysign of soft advertisement!’
- James Joyce, ‘Finnegans Wake’
What wars there have been, tribe against tribe in chance medleys, with castle defences razed, protestants seduced by catholics, young maidens by young men, and fathers deceived by sons. O hear how the father of fornicators lies sprawled in the dust, but how his fame is so far spread that the heavens themselves are his advertisement …. and so our dreamer dreams of battles probably instigated by the racket of traffic outside his window and as it is ever thus peace is signalled by the rainbow girl arching over the battlefield as the skysign of soft advertisement; in one incarnation she is Iseuet, Irish princess, lover of Tristran the nephew of King Mark of Cornwall, in another she is Iseult daughter of Hoel of Brittany and eventual wife of Tristan; the perfect peace-maker for this battle, being both an Irish and a French incarnation, but she is also Issy, daughter of Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker, getting herself into the dream primarily because of the sound of water trickling into a basin between bed and fireplace.
In his notebook Joyce wrote: ‘Is loves sky signs of buildings in TMH street’ … a reference to his own daughter, Lucia Joyce, (1907–1982), in London perhaps. One time professional dancer, treated by Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, (1875–1961), diagnosed as schizophrenic in the mid 1930s, institutionalized at the Burghölzli psychiatric clinic in Zurich, transferred to St. Andrew’s Hospital in Northampton in 1951 where she resided until her death. Lucia began displaying signs of mental illness in 1930, the year after she had began casually dating one Samuel Beckett, (1906–1989), at the time lecturing in English at the École normale supérieure, Paris; in 1930 while her father and her mother Nora Barnacle, (1884–1951), were in Zurich Lucia invited Beckett over for a repast in anticipation of pressing him into some kind of declaration but apparently he categorically rejected her rather brutally letting it be known that it was only her father and his writing that was of interest to him plus (as he supposed) she had her need for an ersatz genius father figure given the unfulfilled amatory connection betwixt herself and her father; and in addition she had something of a a penchant for unprotected sexual congress, apparently.
By 1934 she had taken part in numerous unsuccessful affairs, with her drawing teacher Alexander Calder, (1898–1976), another expatriate artist Albert Hubbell, (1908–1994), and Myrsine Moschos, assistant to publisher Sylvia Beach, (1887–1962), proprietor of Shakespeare and Company bookstore. With her condition deteriorating she became a patient of Jung and soon afterwards was diagnosed with schizophrenia in Zurich and while Joyce allowed her to have some blood tests at St. Andrew’s hospital, she then wanted to return to Paris which she could not be prevented from doing unless her father had her committed and so return to Paris she did for as her father is reported to have said ‘he would never agree to his daughter being incarcerated among the English’.
Jung saw what he believed to ce the importance of Lucia in calling her Joyce’s anima inspiratrix; Helene Cixous, (1937 — ), has claimed: ‘surely the complex relations between Joyce and his daughter Lucia must have provided inspiration for this ardent, guilty father’. Feminist Bonnie Kime Scott (1944 — ), connects Lucia to Issy: ‘It seems obvious that Issy is modeled to some extent upon Joyce’s own daughter, Lucia’. Joyce scholar David Hayman claimed to discover, in manuscripts housed at Austin’s Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, ‘signs of her role as a model for the multivalent ingenue Issy/Isolde’. Richard Ellmann, (1918–1987), on the other hand, has said ‘she was his daughter, not his muse’, and Shari Benstock, (1944–2015), argued against Joyce modelling elements of Issy’s insanity (is Issy insane?) on Lucia’s own schizophrenia: ‘it seems inconceivable that Joyce — facing the inevitability of his daughter’s madness during the years he was writing Finnegans Wake — would purposely transfer his fearful suspicions to so blatant a public scrutiny’. But writing the Wake in the way he did was not especially public, and in addition such transferences on always assumed an important role in Joyce’s method; and Beckett did once ask Joyce whether the rainbow girls were modelled upon Lucia to which Joyce replied simply, ‘Yes, a certain amount’. A cautious but certainly positive reply which delivers enough of a foundation to build upon for the relevance of Lucia to Issy and the novel as a whole. And further, American writer Thornton Wilder, (1897 1975), who collaborated with Adaline Glasheen, (1920–1993), Joyce scholar and specialist in Wake studies, had attempted numerous identifications of Lucia with Issy.
Let us just try something here. As discussed previously Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, (1770–1831), described the pure heart endeavouring to grasp the Unchangeable through feeling but feeling is of course very much changeable and so it was that the feeling heart returned into itself and the Unhappy Consciousness becomes conscious of its individuality, its interior life, and thus surfeited with itself one might say the essential Being becomes alienated from it and through this feeling of self it comes to realise itself in that feeling that its object is itself; so near indeed to the realisation that it is its own consciousness in a second relationship through the modes of desire and work and so Lucia has her affairs and pays her homage to Terpsichore. With her labouring under a seeming internal necessity and existence in the form of independent things, desire and work allow for them to be nullified as dependent, granting consciousness a self-confirmation, and she manipulates objects in the world. throwing a chair at Nora for instance which triggered her being sent to an institution in the first place; and without them manipulating her, but though this may work for the realm of objects an Unhappy Consciousness is endeavouring to grasp the Unchangeable, the self that is desiring and working is aiming at some object beyond the desire and beyond the work and not realising that that is itself a division placed between the active, the individual being, and whatever this thing is that it is after, the Unchangeable.
The Unhappy Consciousness’s relation to its embodied transcendent assumes an appearance further as its own self-feeling that is connected with its desires and with the work it performs, which desire and which work do not however endow this work with its positive meaning to make the Unhappy Consciousnhess confident of itself, to enable it to enjoy the transcendent; rather, all that they bring to light are the Unhappy Consciousnesse’s infinite remoteness and separation from its ideal. (This is clearly seen for instance in the case of the African missionary Albert Schweitzer that I discussed in The Divided Mind. Part Three: The Unhappy Consciousness (4)).
But the Unhappy Consciousness after the failure of devotion and having considered the ideal of work as it endeavoured to serve the Unchangeable through labour now has a contradictory attitude to the world upon which it works; for on the one hand, anything worldly is without significance, for what matters is the Unchangeable that stands above it; and on the other hand, everything in the world is sanctified as the expression of the nature of the Unchangeable. Likewise, the Unhappy Consciousness also sees its own capacities for labour in a two-fold manner; on the one hand it can create anything through their employment, and yet this is only because the Unchangeable permits it; and on the other hand, it also views these capacities as something the Unchangeable grants it, divinely ordained one might say, (we are talking about God here one supposes), and therefore though work may well grant the Unhappy Consciousness some sense of its union with the Unchangeable, in another sense it makes it feel even more separated from it, as Hegel explains:
‘The fact that the unchangeable consciousness renounces and surrenders its embodied form, while, on the other hand, the particular individual consciousness gives thanks [for the gift], i.e. denies itself the satisfaction of being conscious of its independence, and assigns the essence of its action not to itself but to the beyond, through these two moments of reciprocal self surrender of both parts, consciousness does, of course, gain a sense of unity with the Unchangeable. But this unity is at the same time affected with division, is again broken within itself, and from it there emerges once more the antithesis of the universal and the individual’.
As the Unhappy Consciousness endeavours to become one with the Unchangeable by working with nature, which is to say, with the earthly manifestation of the Unchangeable, it surrenders its independence to it, as likewise the Unchangeable’s manifestation surrenders itself for the benefit of the Unhappy Consciousness and thus the two are unified to some extent; but the situation does give rise to some disatisfaction as the Unhappy Consciousness surrenders all of itself whereas the Unchangeable merely gives a negligible portion; and further, were the Unhappy Consciousness to experience pride or satisfiction from their devotion then they are not in fact being selfless and surrendering; the manifestation may well be in the form of ownership of a religious relic, an inanimate object bereft of consciousness and bringing the Unhappy Consciousness no closer to the Unchangeable nor making it any more spiritual, and now completely frustrated by its own efforts in futility it withdraws from identifying with either of its aspects and regards itself as constantly fluctuating between the two and identifies with the point of nothingness between its two inner aspects and has now attained a nihilistic meaningless.
Frustrated with its earthly labours to attain unity with the Unchangeable, the Unhappy Consciousness recognises the full impact of its individuality and the distance this creates in relation to the Unchangeable thus causing the Unhappy Consciousness to totally despise its own existence, an extreme negation of individual existence, asceticism that is, (Lucia vomiting up her food at the table may be an instance of this) operating against a background of an awareness of the Unchangeable and so now the Unhappy Consciousness sees itself to be an explicit nothingness standing as the mere fluctuation betwixt the two aspects of itself and the explicit awareness of itself as neither fully Unchangeable nor fully individual thereby generating a three-fold relationship within the Unhappy Consciousness, an erstwhile servile aspect regarded as a pure object and a controlling aspect regarded as the absolute truth and the Unhappy Consciousness apprehends itself to be at the the point of transition betwixt the two and regards itself as a meaningless mediator between the two aspects of itself neither of which it can view as completely itself, and given that it regards itself as a fluctuating nothingness it does not assign itself any positive value as a mediator but it does seek a mediator between its individual and its universal aspects in order to reconcile itself and this causes the Unhappy Consciousness to search for an external mediator, a priest for instance.
‘What bidmetoloves sinduced by what tegotebabsolvers! bidimetoloves’ refers to Herrick’s poem ‘Bid me to live, and I will live’ but the sentence here is specifically concerned with Protestants sinfully seduced by Catholics, the latter believe in absolution (though a mediator).
‘To Anthea Who May Command Him Anything’
by Robert Herrick, (1591–1674)
Bid me to live, and I will live
Thy Protestant to be;
Or bid me love, and I will give
A loving heart to thee.
A heart as soft, a heart as kind,
A heart as sound and free
As in the whole world thou canst find,
That heart I’ll give to thee.
Bid that heart stay, and it will stay,
To honour thy decree;
Or bid it languish quite away.
And ‘t shall do so for thee.
Bid me to weep, and I will weep
While I have eyes to see;
And having none, yet I will keep
A heart to weep for thee.
Bid me despair, and I’ll despair,
Under that cypress tree;
Or bid me die, and I will dare
E’en Death, to die for thee.
Thou art my life, my love, my heart,
The very eyes of me,
And hast command of every part,
To live and die for thee.
Absolution is forgiveness as experienced by Christians through the life of the Church the theology and the practice of which varies between denominations, some traditions regarding absolution as a sacrament, the sacrament of Penance, a concept found in the Roman Catholic Church whereby the penitent makes a sacramental confession of all mortal sins to a priest and prays an act of contrition the priest then assigning a penance and imparting absolution in the name of the Trinity on behalf of Christ himself using a fixed sacramental formula.
Dominus noster Jesus Christus te absolvat; et ego auctoritate ipsius te absolvo ab omni vinculo excommunicationis (suspensionis) et interdicti in quantum possum et tu indiges. Deinde, ego te absolvo a peccatis tuis in nomine Patris, et Filii, + et Spiritus Sancti. Amen.
May our Lord Jesus Christ absolve you; and by His authority I absolve you from every bond of excommunication (suspension) and interdict, so far as my power allows and your needs require. [making the Sign of the Cross:] Thereupon, I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father, and of the Son, + and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.
But with the total submission to a priest, the Unhappy Consciousness reduces itself to an object or thing-like consciousness, surrendering its autonomy, its property, its body, a reversal in the servile consciousness and a point of identification with the priest; obeying the priest’s commands, embodying the priest’s will, becoming more and more like a priest itself, eventually internalising the external priest and realising that it has a priest within itself and reaching a point where it reconciles the opposing aspects of itself. There then transpires the third stage of the Unhappy Consciousness, a transition to reason made possible when the individual and the universal are finally identified and reconciled…. the dawning of reason as Hegel sees it, of the certainty that, in its particular individuality, it has being absolutely in itself, or is all reality, for to the rational consciousness, nothing is essentially alien and it attains the certainty of being all reality; and this is the Idealist view of the world that acknowledges the independent existence of the natural world from any particular thinking individual.
And if the transition is impeded? Although Hegel’s analysis of the Unhappy Consciousness intimates Christianity of course, Søren Kierkegaard, (1813–1815), in his essay The Unhappiest One discusses the hypothetical question: ‘who deserves the distinction of being unhappier than everyone else?’, (with characteristic irony he considers historical figures with a view to answering this question and would probably not appreciate what I have been doing in this series, taking figures from the past and deciding they were unhappy, least of all would he approve of himself being among them; see: The Divided Mind: Pat Three: The Unhappy Consciousnes (1)), Kierkegaard, as I say, interprets Hegel’s Unhappy Consciousness as a situation in which the essence of a self-conscious individual is no longer present to him but in some manner outside him, such that the individual manifests a dichotomy of temporal alienation, such a situation developing as a person lives in the past, or in the future without being reconciled to their present self, that is to say, In The Sickness unto Death Kierkegaard examines many other senses in which the individual may fail to be reconciled to his or her own eternal essence, and thus enter into the various states of despair, a theme of despair that manifests itself in Friedrich Nietzsche’s, (1844–1900), notion of the death of God whereby the once devout believer comes to reject his or her otherworldly beliefs and kills God in the sense of rejecting Him or Her as a foundation for belief and thus there is a nihilistic despair, where the once devout believer has lost a father (mother?) figure and must overcome such an appalling condition by assuming life-affirming interpretations of the world and his or her existence. The death of God echoes Kierkegaard’s notion of a misplaced perspective, one not being reconciled with their present self or essence, for belief in an otherworldly God produces a typeof social malaise, in addition to a profound unhappiness and dissatisfaction; and thus the Unhappy Consciousness and the death of God are related given that the central theme of both is that of projecting oneself onto an otherworldly Other, though this theme is dealt with differently by the different philosophers; Hegel aimed for reconciliation with the Other, (more accurately, reconcilation of the particular with the universal; Nietzsche believed such endeavours to be dead, illusory, unhealthy for the believers in the possibility of such a reconciliation..
Howard P. Kainz, (1933 — ), has argued that so-called psychological transcendence (expanding personal boundaries, becoming more ‘spiritual’ whatever is supposed to be meant by that term in this context, seeing oneself as an integral part of the universe, which as it happens lies at the heart of Hegelian Absolute Idealism but I won’t go into that here), that psychological transcendence in psychiatric practice is evocative of Hegel’s treatment of the second stage of the Unhappy Consciousness:
‘…in cases where people were no longer able to project the image of the divinity, and were in danger of dispersion of psychic energy, the ambiguous situation was often alleviated by the dream or vision of the ‘mandala symbol’ — the symbol of deiform completeness (usually a circle containing sets of quaternities). This symbol was found to coincide in major characteristics with mandalas in ancient and modern religions, myth, etc. In the case of the individual patient, this ‘particular revelation’ of the divinity and of one’s own potential self is usually accompanied by a feeling of profound inner peace’.
By a mediator then we need not think simply of the church mediating between individuals and God, for as Philip J, Kain, (1943 — ), points out Hegel may well have said ‘[t]his middle term is itself a conscious Being [the mediator]’, which does make it sound like the mediator is God, but what the mediator mediates is consciousness and as Kain says the three terms ‘individual consciousness’, ‘the mediator’ and ‘the Unchangeable’ are constructions within self-consciousness and self-consciousness from the start has constructed two worlds: ‘The whole problem results from the fact that consciousnwess posited two worlds and now must bridge them. And it is self-consciousness itself that does the bridging. For Hegel this is to solve a false problem with an unnecessary solution. Except that, without seeing what it is doing (and if it saw what it was doing, it could not accept it), self-consciousness is constructing itself as absolute consciousness, which is to say that God or the absolute, properly understood (in Hegel’s view), is beginning to emerge here’.
Which brings us back to Lucia, Jung, and depth psychology, According to depth psychology the unconscious has within its repressed experiences and many other issues at a personal and at a transpersonal level, that is to say, in its depths are collective, non-ego, archetypal impulses; and within the semi-conscious there is, or rather the semi-conscious is itself, an aware pattern of personality, in Lucia’s case we may identify her personal insecurity’self-esteem with her cutting of the the telephone wires on the congratulatory calls that friends were making about the imminent publication of Ulysses in America, or her setting fire to things; to her personality of the workplace, her dancing. Archetypes are supposed primordial elements of the collective unconscious, in Jungian psychology, forming the unchanging (you can probably see where I am going with this) context from which the contents of cyclical and sequential changes derive their meanings, and duration, psychic time, is the hidden explanation of action as the psyche spontaneously generates mythico-religious symbolism or themes, and is thereby spiritual or metaphysical in addition to being instinctive in nature; from which is implied that the choice of whether to be a spiritual person or not was beyond Lucia as it is with every individual howsoever she applied it or not and including her non-spiritual hankerings, her affairs we might say.
Every mind and every life is thus ultimately embedded in a kind of mythopoeia in the form of themes or patterns and mythology is not a series of ancient explanations for natural events but rather the richness, the wonder, of humanity playing itself out in a symbolical, thematic, and patterned storytelling.
Jung took the mandala as a graphical representation of the centre, or the Self, appearing as id oes in dreams and visions, apparently, or created spontaneously by drawing, present in the cultural and religious representations, found in Christianity under the form of frescos with animal images representing apostles and the zodiac; used as a support for meditation or an image to internalize through mental absorption; putatively organizing inner energies and forces of the practitioner placing them in a relationship with his or ego-consciousness; this mere geometrical form, this square, or this circle, both abstract and static, a vivid image formed out of objects or out of beings or out of both.
And a replacement for an image of the divinity, of the Unchangeable, and herein lies the problem of a depth psychology analysis to which Lucia fell victim; psychology turns to myth for its understanding of the supposed depths of our psychologies, it becomes a religion, the psychologist becomes a priest and interpreter of arcane mysteries, a mediator; and the Unhappy Consciousnesses I have looked at in this series may have all been Christians and it might well appear somewhat odd to finish with Lucia who may or may not have had religious commitments, I know nothing about that. However, Jungian psychology, resorting to myth as it does, can propose an Electra complex, a girl’s psychosexual competition with her mother for possession of her father (well Lucia did throw a chair at Nora); this is the girl’s phallic phase, analogous to the Oedipus complex proposed by Sigmund Freud, (1856–1939). but myths, narratives that play a fundamental role in a society concerning its foundations and origins, closely connected with religionas they are, they have to be endorsed by rulers, or by priests or priestesses, and the Electra complex was not endorsed by Freud, the high priest of a contrary religion, for he instead proposed that girls and boys resolved their complexes differently, she through penis envy, he through castration anxiety; and were they not resolved successfully then neuroses ensue; Lucia would then perhaps be diagnosed as stuck in the Electra stage of her psycho-sexual development and hence father-fixated. And a psycho-analyst can mitigate such behaviour by revealing and reintroducing the repressed aspects of the patient’s mental processes to his or her conscious awareness; Freud even uses the word mediator: ‘assuming the role of mediator and peacemaker … to lift the repression’. And then the job being done the psycho-analyst can absolve the patient…. ego te absolvo.
Clearly Lucia was impeded in her development towards a mature sexual role and identity. Jungian depth psychology with its two worlds, its universal unchangeable archetypes and its mutable individual in need of a mediator to renconcile them and we have seen how that merely sets up a situation whereby the individual feels even more cut off from the Unchangeable, an Unhappy Consciousness indeed. Lucia may have been saved had she read Hegel, her German was fluent and she could have read him in his own language (I am assuming she did not but given that her letters were all destroyed, including those to Beckett, destroyed by Beckett himself, and her only novel destroyed also, there is much about her that we will never know; one would almost think there was a concerted attempt to write her out of history). Hegelian philosophy would have served her well, to overcome her despair, by providing her with what really is a fresh way of thinking about reality, thereby bringing her back to her sense of the world being a rational place, but reason must awaken and reflection applied; rather than being myth makers we should see myth making as a form of thought that is an impedance to the adoption of an intellectual or practical conception of the world that prevents it appearing rational to us, as it should when looked at properly: ‘The aim of knowledge is to divest the objective world that stands opposed to us of its strangeness, and, as the phrase is, to find ourselves at home in it: which means no more than to trace the objective world back to the notion — to our innermost self’. Lucia then would have passed through her Unhappy Consciousness stage into a world where she would truly have found herself at home.
‘A Flower Given to My Daughter’
By James Joyce
Frail the white rose and frail are
Her hands that gave
Whose soul is sere and paler
Than time’s wan wave.
Rosefrail and fair — yet frailest
A wonder wild
In gentle eyes thou veilest,
My blueveined child.
Notes to ‘Finnegans Wake’ quotation:
1. sod = Ireland; and one who practices or commits sodomy.
2. brood = offspring.
3. fear, fir (Irish) = man, men
4. Saint Lawrence; and sang (French), blood.
5. salve (Latin) = hail; and ave (Latin), hail.
6. appeal = to call one to defend himself (as by wager of battle); to challenge.
7. larm = alarm; Larm (German), noise; larme (French), tear.
8. appalling = frightful, horrifying.
9. kill (Anglo-Irish) = church; and kill.
10. toll = payment, tax, duty; and toll (German), mad; and at all, at all (Anglo-Irish phrase), ‘taken together’, ;collectively’, ‘altogether’; and (bells pealing).
11. chance = that occurs or is by chance; happening to be such; casual, incidental; chance-medley (Legalese), manslaughter by misadventure.
12. cuddle = fondle; and cudgel, a short thick stick used as a weapon; a club.
13. cashel = the ancient circular wall found in Scotland and Ireland enclosing group of ecclesiastical buildings; stone fort or building’ and kashyel (Russian), cough.
14. air = to expose to the open or fresh air, so as to remove foul or damp air; to ventilate; castles in the air (phrase).
15. ventilate = to shoot (someone or something) with a gun, usu. to kill. Also of a bullet: to make a hole in (something); and (evacuated).
16. bidimetoloves = from Herrick’s poem ‘Bid me to live, and I will live / Thy Protestant to be; / Or bid me love, and I will give / A loving heart to thee’. (Quoted Ulysses, 645). The FW sentence is about Protestants sinfully seduced by Catholics, who believe in absolution; and bi- (Latin) = di- (Greek) — two.
17. FDV (First draft version): egosetabsolvers; and ego te absolvo (Latin): ‘I absolve you’ (from the confessional rite of the Catholic Church) hence, Tegogetabsolvers = Catholics (contrasted with bidimetoloves, or Protestants); and three t’s.
18. hair; and there’s hair! = there’s a girl with a lot of hair! (catch-phrase of the early 20th century); and ‘so sure as thair’s a tail on a commet’, [177.25–26] → there’s hair = commet tail (destruction of Atlantis); and FDV: what true feeling for hay hair with false voice & of haycup jiccup, what rorycrucians rosycrucians byelected by rival contested of simily emilies!
19. strong; and hay, straw.
20. hiccup; and Jacob; and Genesis 27:22: ‘And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father; and he felt him, and said, The voice is Jacob’s voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau’ (Esau’s hairy arms and Jacob’s voice).
21. sprowl = sprawl — recline, lounge; and hear, hear how hath Howth prowled.
22. met (Dutch) = with.
23. dusk, and dust.
24. fornication = sin, adultery ; and Vignette (blurred by the the): Nut, the goddess of the night sky, and her brother Geb, the god of the earth, were originally thought to be in a constant state of love making. Ra grew angry with his grandchildren, and commanded their father Shu to separate the two lovers. The god of the air took his place, and trampled on the ithyphallic Geb, and lifted Nut high into the air. Nut was found to be pregnant, and was then cursed by Ra — she would never be able to bear her children on any month of the 360 day year. Thoth managed to win a game against Khonsu, god of the moon, and used some of the light of the moon to create five extra days (making the year 365 days). During those days Nut gave birth to her five children — Isis, Osiris, Nephthys, Set and Horus the Elder (not to be confused with Horus, the child of Isis and Osiris).
25. hath = archaic present 3d. sing of have.
26. finespun = elaborated to flimsiness, excessively subtle or refined; and fane, a flag, banner; and span = spread; and Isaiah 48:13: ‘my right hand hath spanned the heavens.
27. skysign = electric display sign on top of a building; Joyce’s note: ‘Is loves sky signs of buildings in TMH street’ (Lucia Joyce in London?).
Arms apeal with larms, appalling. Killykillkilly: a toll, a toll. What chance cuddleys, what cashels aired and ventilated!…………….